Desain, P., & Honing, H. (1987). LOCO, composition microworld, manual Apple IIe. (Research Report). Utrecht: Centre for Art, Media and Technology, Utrecht School of the Arts.


LOCO is a system for (music) composition. It is built on the general programming language Logo. It can be used as a workbench for experimenting with musical structures, both for beginners and professionals. It is a non-realtime system, which means that composing and playing don't take place at the same time. LOCO consists of three subsystems: the composition system, the score system, and the instrument system (see figure 3). The composition system consists of a set of program generators, programs that write programs. They can be used to create the so-called choice systems that will make a composition according to the rules provided by the composer. The connection between the composition system and the instrument is via the score system. The instrument system uses standard MIDI codes to control any kind of MIDI synthesiser. The scope of this manual is a step by step introduction to LOCO. It is not intended as a demonstration of the full power of LOCO, nor to explain theories about music composition.

Manual (with sound examples)