Dannenberg, R. B., Desain, P., and Honing, H. (1997) Programming Languages for music. In De Poli, G, Picialli, A., Pope, S. T, and Roads, C. (eds) Musical Signal Processing 271-315. Lisse: Swets & Zeitlinger ISBN: 90-265-1483-2.


In this paper, we describe some of the general problems of music representation and music languages and describe some solutions that have been developed. The first section introduces a set of abstract concepts in musical terms. The following section, "Computing with Music Representatons," describes a number of computational issues related to music. Then, we begin to describe some languages we have developed that address these issues: "Shared Framework of Nyquist and GTF' introduces some ideas that are common to our work and that of others. "The Nyquist Language" describes a language for sound synthesis and composition, and "The Representation Language GTF" presents a music language emphasizing combination and transformation. The final section treats a number of implementation issues for music languages.

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